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Jumat, 19 Februari 2010

Limfoma Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms NHL felt by patients include swollen lymph nodes in the neck and groin without pain, itching all over his body, weight loss, fever and sweating great at night. HIV-positive people should be careful when there is swelling outside the lymph nodes. Physical examination in people who have the NHL will show the enlarged liver and spleen, and laboratory tests routinely used to show anemia (low levels of red blood cells) are visible from the levels of Hb is low.


Diagnosis of NHL refers to more than 24 types of cancer in the lymph system. To find the right treatment or even predict the outcome, the doctor must first find the cell nodes which attacked lymphoma. The first step is to take samples of tissue (biopsy) is affected by lymphoma to be analyzed. The cell was then given a dye specific and observed through a microscope to compare the size and shape of cells and the appearance of the nucleus and cytoplasm. The cell was grouped in several levels, namely: low-level spread of the slow, the level was to spread a little faster and a high level to spread very quickly. Diagnosis is confirmed by CT scan (computerized tomography scan) and image MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).

NHL can attack various organs of the body. A person with HIV potentially greater experience of lymphoma on more than one organ. Undergo a chest will show whether the lungs are also affected. Biopsy of bone marrow is useful to know whether the lymphoma that spread to the bone marrow, where the production of red blood cells and white blood cells do is to take some bone marrow, which was observed with a microscope to see the presence or absence of abnormal cells. Lastly, the picture a few X-ray can be especially useful to see the structure of lymph node swelling and examined the supply of blood and lymph glands are. This process is called lymphangiography, requires liquid blue that can be seen with X-rays fluid was injected in the veins in between the toes and then by using X-rays will be visible image lymph nodes when the liquid is passed.

Treatment and Hope

There are two types of therapy offered to those who attacked the NHL. The first is chemotherapy consisting of drugs that kill and destroy cancer cells. The second is radiation therapy that use X-rays that is set to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Usually two treatments are combined according to the circumstances and needs of the patient.

There is controversy surrounding the chemotherapy is best for the NHL due to AIDS. Series of drugs called CHOP, which consists of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone, is proposed for the treatment of lymphoma from AIDS because they were considered as standard treatment for people with HIV. Supporting this combination recognizes that each individual must make their own choices in regard to the drug to be used and the amount of reduction in dose, which is based on state immunity and the individual's ability to tolerate treatment that actually contains poison. All participants in the debate about the choice of combination chemotherapy acknowledged that antiretroviral therapy is effective may have a good effect for the immune system as a whole.

Both chemotherapy and radiation damage to a large number of cells of the immune system. Neutropenia (decreased neutrophils, a type of white blood cells) can be prevented before undergoing chemotherapy or radiation by using granulocyte colony stimulating factor. After chemotherapy and radiation, bone marrow transplant is autologous (taken from the patients before treatment) often needs to be done to revive the immune system. Bone marrow transplant is more often done on people who are HIV negative, of whom owns 75% of NHL low-level local who lived at least five years; 40-50% of those who experienced pain worse live two years or more.

Palliation - Care When It's Possible to Recover

Treatment for NHL is suppress the immune system. After chemotherapy and radiation are often required glucocorticoid, anti-heart attack and contain pain relievers strong. Poverty is enough (to reach the target) of the swelling and pain with medication is usually allowed and rarely occurs any drug dependence. If the lymphoma can not be controlled with chemotherapy and radiation, then the patient should feel comfortable with getting support from doctors, family and friends.

NHL on the Brain - Case Special

Lymphoma of the brain are rarely experienced by people with levels of CD4 cells is high. The main symptoms of lymphoma central nervous system (CNS) is headache and fever. Feelings such as increased pressure in the head or even attack headaches great also common. One third of those with lymphoma CNS felt disorders speak (aphasia), blurred vision and disturbances sensitivity or coordination of movement on one side of the body.

According to the Mayo Clinic, early signs of lymphoma CNS can be detected in the eye. 11% of people who later revealed infected lymphoma CNS was experiencing uveitis (inflammation of the iris eyes and parts around the eyes) which was preceded by other symptoms for months to years. If therapy corticosteroids do not cure uveitis, it can take a biopsy of the liquid vitreus on the eye that would indicate the existence of infiltration (inflammatory cells and debris) so that the diagnosis of lymphoma CNS by quickly identified and can be treated eyes examined regularly. Then lymphoma CNS will be faster to detect than the examination special might be late. Moreover, examination of the eyes is not so frightening when compared with the biopsy of the brain.


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