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Senin, 22 Februari 2010

Mesothelioma Chemotherapy: Comparison of cisplatin & carboplatin

A mesothelioma articles recently published in scientific journals that examine the lung cancer benefits and costs and Pemetrexed combined with cisplatin and carboplatin chemotherapy Pemetrexed for mesothelioma.

Cisplatin combination chemotherapy and Pemetrexed is one of several options that chemotherapy has proved quite successful in the treatment of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma / malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but this combination can be very toxic to the body. There is no treatment and treatment for malignant mesothelioma cancer without the side effects that are not desirable.

In these journals the researchers noted that "there are two phases of randomized studies in phase III shows the benefit for the prognosis of mesothelioma in the use of antifolates such as raltitrexed or Pemetrexed, when combined with cisplatin. The study has demonstrated an absolute improvement in overall survival an average of 2.6 and 2.8 months, compared with single treatment for cisplatin. This makes a lot of institutions using cisplatin and Pemetrexed as the standard palliative chemotherapy treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma. "

Unfortunately, the combination of cisplatin and Pemetrexed produce toxic effects that are not desirable and this encouraged the researchers to study other chemotherapy drugs in combination with Pemetrexed. The researchers said, "Recently, two phase II trial has evaluated the efficacy of carboplatin and will Pemetrexed in MPM. Both studies showed overall response rates 18.6 and 25%, with survival rates average 12.7 and 14 months. As a continuation of these results, we have made a retrospective analysis of MPM patients treated with carboplatin and Pemetrexed in our institutions. "

In an effort to find a combination of chemotherapy mesothelioma with minimal toxicity and side effects, the researchers investigated further by replacing cisplatin with carboplatin when paired with Pemetrexed. By using a retrospective approach, the researchers evaluated 49 cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma who were given a combination of carboplatin and Pemetrexed and compare the results with the data giving cisplatin combination chemotherapy with Pemetrexed.

The level of disease control (known by its lack of signs of progressive mesothelioma by CT scan) for the patients was 69 percent, and a partial response and stable disease percentage of 28 percent and 41 percent. Clinical improvement shown in figure 69 per cent, the majority of patients reported increased profits after two cycles of chemotherapy. Generally low toxicity and better than the toxicity of cisplatin with Pemetrexed.

The average time of treatment failure was 4.6 months. The average overall survival in this study is 14 months, which compared with the cisplatin-pemetrexed for 12.1 months. Researchers argued, "In conclusion, our data show the combination of carboplatin and Pemetrexed may be an option in the treatment of mesothelioma, especially in patients who have problems with the use of cisplatin."

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Differences pleural mesothelioma and peritoneal mesothelioma

Mesothelioma cancer is a disease in which tumors grow in cancer mesothelium layer - a layer of internal body cavity (the inside). Giving a specific name of the type of mesothelioma depends on the location where the network began to develop cancer.

Comparison of cisplatin and carboplatin to Mesothelioma Chemotherapy

Pleural mesothelioma begin in the chest, the pleura surrounding the lungs (the outer layer of the lungs and internal chest wall). The percentage of pleural mesothelioma is about 70% of all mesothelioma cases. While peritoneal mesothelioma begin developing the abdominal cavity lining.

Although sometimes referred to as "lung cancer asbestos / asbestos lung cancer, mesothelioma is not the same as lung cancer. Lung cancer occurs in the lung itself, while cancer pleural mesothelioma mesotelioma mainly occurs in the lung lining. This mesothelioma cases of the disease has infected many people in the world, for example 3000 Americans each year have cancer. Malignant mesothelioma cancer it is mostly happening in the industrial countries.

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Jumat, 19 Februari 2010

Limfoma Signs and Symptoms

Symptoms NHL felt by patients include swollen lymph nodes in the neck and groin without pain, itching all over his body, weight loss, fever and sweating great at night. HIV-positive people should be careful when there is swelling outside the lymph nodes. Physical examination in people who have the NHL will show the enlarged liver and spleen, and laboratory tests routinely used to show anemia (low levels of red blood cells) are visible from the levels of Hb is low.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of NHL refers to more than 24 types of cancer in the lymph system. To find the right treatment or even predict the outcome, the doctor must first find the cell nodes which attacked lymphoma. The first step is to take samples of tissue (biopsy) is affected by lymphoma to be analyzed. The cell was then given a dye specific and observed through a microscope to compare the size and shape of cells and the appearance of the nucleus and cytoplasm. The cell was grouped in several levels, namely: low-level spread of the slow, the level was to spread a little faster and a high level to spread very quickly. Diagnosis is confirmed by CT scan (computerized tomography scan) and image MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).

NHL can attack various organs of the body. A person with HIV potentially greater experience of lymphoma on more than one organ. Undergo a chest will show whether the lungs are also affected. Biopsy of bone marrow is useful to know whether the lymphoma that spread to the bone marrow, where the production of red blood cells and white blood cells do is to take some bone marrow, which was observed with a microscope to see the presence or absence of abnormal cells. Lastly, the picture a few X-ray can be especially useful to see the structure of lymph node swelling and examined the supply of blood and lymph glands are. This process is called lymphangiography, requires liquid blue that can be seen with X-rays fluid was injected in the veins in between the toes and then by using X-rays will be visible image lymph nodes when the liquid is passed.

Treatment and Hope

There are two types of therapy offered to those who attacked the NHL. The first is chemotherapy consisting of drugs that kill and destroy cancer cells. The second is radiation therapy that use X-rays that is set to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Usually two treatments are combined according to the circumstances and needs of the patient.

There is controversy surrounding the chemotherapy is best for the NHL due to AIDS. Series of drugs called CHOP, which consists of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone, is proposed for the treatment of lymphoma from AIDS because they were considered as standard treatment for people with HIV. Supporting this combination recognizes that each individual must make their own choices in regard to the drug to be used and the amount of reduction in dose, which is based on state immunity and the individual's ability to tolerate treatment that actually contains poison. All participants in the debate about the choice of combination chemotherapy acknowledged that antiretroviral therapy is effective may have a good effect for the immune system as a whole.

Both chemotherapy and radiation damage to a large number of cells of the immune system. Neutropenia (decreased neutrophils, a type of white blood cells) can be prevented before undergoing chemotherapy or radiation by using granulocyte colony stimulating factor. After chemotherapy and radiation, bone marrow transplant is autologous (taken from the patients before treatment) often needs to be done to revive the immune system. Bone marrow transplant is more often done on people who are HIV negative, of whom owns 75% of NHL low-level local who lived at least five years; 40-50% of those who experienced pain worse live two years or more.

Palliation - Care When It's Possible to Recover

Treatment for NHL is suppress the immune system. After chemotherapy and radiation are often required glucocorticoid, anti-heart attack and contain pain relievers strong. Poverty is enough (to reach the target) of the swelling and pain with medication is usually allowed and rarely occurs any drug dependence. If the lymphoma can not be controlled with chemotherapy and radiation, then the patient should feel comfortable with getting support from doctors, family and friends.

NHL on the Brain - Case Special

Lymphoma of the brain are rarely experienced by people with levels of CD4 cells is high. The main symptoms of lymphoma central nervous system (CNS) is headache and fever. Feelings such as increased pressure in the head or even attack headaches great also common. One third of those with lymphoma CNS felt disorders speak (aphasia), blurred vision and disturbances sensitivity or coordination of movement on one side of the body.

According to the Mayo Clinic, early signs of lymphoma CNS can be detected in the eye. 11% of people who later revealed infected lymphoma CNS was experiencing uveitis (inflammation of the iris eyes and parts around the eyes) which was preceded by other symptoms for months to years. If therapy corticosteroids do not cure uveitis, it can take a biopsy of the liquid vitreus on the eye that would indicate the existence of infiltration (inflammatory cells and debris) so that the diagnosis of lymphoma CNS by quickly identified and can be treated eyes examined regularly. Then lymphoma CNS will be faster to detect than the examination special might be late. Moreover, examination of the eyes is not so frightening when compared with the biopsy of the brain.

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Limfoma by AIDS

Lymphoma is one type of cancer in which cells multiply lymph nodes with no control. Lymphomas are divided into two categories: Hodgkin's lymphoma is a distinctive sign of this disease is the discovery of similar cells called Reed-Steinberg cells, and other types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - NHL). NHL cases developed among people with HIV since 1989 remained until 1995. Research continued to investigate the involvement of viruses in producing this type of cancer. However, clinical studies of lymphoma of the brain tissue from AIDS is still very little.

Genesis

NHL is one that attacks cancer cells, especially in lymph nodes and spleen. Leukemia and lymphoma is a common name / commonly used for cancer that attacks white blood cells. Cancer can change the white blood cells at any stage of development from stem cells form in the bone marrow to become T cells and B cells mature. NHL can occur at any stage of HIV disease. HIV-positive cases who have the NHL continues to increase until the year 1995, when the therapy is highly active antiretroviral began to spread. The increase in the number of people with HIV who had the NHL seems proportional to the magnitude and duration of suppression of their immune system.

Lymphoma Causes

Lymphoma occurs when there is a lymphocyte (lymph cells) had a number of genetic mutations and loss of control of reproduction. Cells continue to multiply these mutate and develop into tumors and then attack the lymph tissue such as lymph nodes or spleen. The greatest danger of lymphoma is spreading to other organs or tissue.

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in people with HIV is a double infection of HIV and herpes virus causes Kaposi's sarcoma (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus - KSHV) is a new unknown. What about lymphoma in people with HIV? Recent research confirms the active role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in lymphoma development. One type of NHL Burkitt's lymphoma, associated with EBV proven. Around the world, EBV contributes to about half of all cases of cancer of the throat, and more than 30% of all cases of Hodgkin's disease and 10% of NHL. The hypothesis that the HIV virus to empower others to cause certain cancers seem good for further investigation. Research is needed to explain the role of EBV in lymphomas from AIDS, although the relationship between KSHV and KS and the role of human papilloma virus in anogenital cancer seems more understandable. Research is also needed to determine the relationship between the herpes virus that was discovered with lymphoma. Such research could yield new ways to predict and treat lymphoma.

On the other hand, a small-scale study states that there is a relationship between the levels of certain toxins and pesticides in the body of a person with NHL risk. Because of the small number of participants in this study, the research needed to further strengthening.

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Minggu, 14 Februari 2010

Thief Called Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men after 50 years and became the second biggest killer among the cancers that attack men in the United States. More than half of men over 70 years there has got it, he said. Stanisic.

Prostate cancer is rarely attack men under 45 years unless any of your family that way. The disease is usually curable when detected in early stages, said Dr. Stanisic.

Unfortunately this cancer often grows silently in the prostate gland without any symptoms until after the spread ketulang and surrounding tissue. That is why it is important for men aged 50 years to undergo a digital rectal test that allows doctors found a lump or enlargement of the prostate, and prostate-specific antigen blood test, blood test to detect a protein that came out of the prostate when there is a tumor.

When doctors discovered the cancer, treatment will depend on several factors, including tumor size, growth rate and whether the disease has spread outside the prostate. Treatment for this include radiation, surgical prostate removal, and hormone therapy to lower testosterone levels.

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Sabtu, 13 Februari 2010

Cancer is not a mild disease

Cancer is not a mild disease. An initial step in the detection of cancer treatment is right that the symptoms that appear on the patient's body is truly malignant cancer cells. This detection can be done with a biopsy examination, so that the treatment step can be performed rapidly and precisely. The next step is a therapeutic treatment with conventional ways. But in fact this way of treatment with cancer often can not be solved in total. This is where the role of medicinal plants / herbs.

The main role is to promote herbal immune system of patients and localize kaker cells so the cancer cells are not easily spread, and more easily removed, also not be toxic, so much safer for the patient. An example is the extract of medicinal plants of taro mice (Typhonium flagelliforme). In use, these herbs can be used in conjunction with conventional treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonterapi) or after conventional treatment was completed. Because taro extract the drug from mice can help reduce the effects of conventional treatment.

The number of cancer patients in Indonesia is not known for certain, but the increase from year to year can be proved to be one cause of death. Only a few cancers that can be treated satisfactorily, especially if treated at early stages still. Successful treatment was determined by the type of cancer, cancer stage, the general state of the patient, and efforts to heal the patient.

Cancer Definition

Cancer is a disease caused by the growth of tissue cells that are not normal body. Cancer cells will grow rapidly, out of control, and will continue to divide, then infiltrate the surrounding tissue (invasive) and continue to spread through the connective tissue, blood, and the attack vital organs and the spinal nerves. In normal circumstances, cells will divide only if there is a replacement of cells that have died and broken. In contrast to cancer cells continue to divide even though the body does not need it, so that will happen accumulation of new cells are called malignant tumors. Cell accumulation is urgent and damaging normal tissue, thus disturbing the organs they occupy. Cancer can occur in various tissue in various organs in each body, from feet to head. If the cancer occurs at the surface of the body, will be easily discovered and treated. But if there is in the body, the cancer would be difficult to know, and sometimes - sometimes have no symptoms. If symptoms develop, usually has an advanced stage that it is difficult to treat.

Differences Tumor and Cancer

There are two kinds of tumors are benign tumors and malignant tumors. Benign tumors grow and enlarge only, not too dangerous, and not spread out the network. Whereas malignant tumors are cancers that grow quickly and out of control and damaging other tissue.

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Kamis, 11 Februari 2010

Sugary soda Pancreatic Cancer Causes

LOVE sugary sodas? It's good start to limit the amount of consumption. The reason, researchers say that those who consume at least two sugared soda per week 87 percent risk of experiencing greater lethal pancreatic cancer than those who avoid soda.

Researchers are not sure whether soft drinks are the single cause or because of an unhealthy lifestyle soda users. However, several previous studies have shown that soft drinks lead to increased blood sugar. This makes the pancreas additional stress.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the 11 types of cancer most common in the UK. This cancer is also one of the deadly forms of cancer. This cancer claimed claimed 7700 lives every year. Hollywood actor Patrick Swayze was one patient who died last year.

Increased blood sugar

In a study that lasted for 14 years, researchers from the University of Minnesota involving 16,000 men and women who live in Singapore. During the study period, found 140 cases of pancreatic cancer.

Researchers found, participants who ate two or more sugary soft drinks during the week 87 percent risk of disease is greater than those who did not drink.

According to researcher Dr Mark Pereira, people who consume sugary sodas on a regular basis tend to follow the pattern of a worse diet and lifestyle is not healthy. Pereira also said that there were no relationship between pancreatic cancer with fruit juice.

However, Pereira believes that the increase in sugar content of canned drinks can trigger a disease of the pancreas. "Higher levels of sugar in soft drinks can increase insulin levels in the body, which is believed to trigger the growth of pancreatic cancer cells," Pereira said, as quoted dailymail.com site .

Evidence of the effects of soda is still not consistent. Several previous studies have found that soda is not healthy. But there are also findings that indicate otherwise. Even so, you will be obese if the excess intake of sugar and soft drinks. And excess weight increases the risk of various cancers, including colon cancer and breast cancer.

The researchers also warned that sugary foods can increase blood sugar levels affect the pancreas. Increased blood sugar levels can stimulate the growth of the pancreas and this can trigger cancer.

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Rabu, 10 Februari 2010

Colon Cancer (Colorectal) Can Be Prevented

Globally, colorectal cancer is the commonest type of cancer of all cancers. In the United States, this type of cancer ranks the third most common cancers in men and women, as well as the number 2 position as the most common cause of death due to cancer. In Indonesia, this cancer is one type of cancer that is often found and included in the top 10 most common cancers.

Colon cancer (colorectal) cancer is a preventable and curable if found at an early stage. More than 90% of patients diagnosed with this disease have a life expectancy of more than 5 years. Tips berikur presented are taken from the results of various studies in humans that aims to prevent this type of cancer.

Previously, let's find out the occurrence of colon cancer this briefly. Like most cancer process, initially caused by mutations of genes (the smallest fraction of cells that code for making proteins). That places polyps in the intestinal wall. These polyps are benign lesions, and many people who have polyps in the gut wall and did not become cancerous. It is estimated that approximately 5% which will develop into cancer. Thus, the strategy of colon cancer prevention is to avoid trigger factors and knowing the gene mutation, and remove polyps as early as possible.

From various studies, is now known that these things can be done to prevent colon cancer, including:
1. Eat foods with enough fiber.
Consume as much fiber, 30 g / day proved to reduce the risk of colon cancer by 40% compared to people who only consume fiber, 12 g / day. Adequacy of the amount of fiber can be obtained from consuming 8 servings of vegetables and fruits, as well as from the wholemeal bread.
2. Reduce consumption of red meat
People who consume lots of red meat (eg beef, lamb, etc.) or processed meat more than 160 g / day (2 servings or more) will experience an increased risk of colon cancer as much as 35% compared to people who only consume less than 1 serving per week. Consumption of red meat associated with the formation of N-nitroso compounds in fases that can trigger colon cancer. Contrary to the red meat / processed meat, fish consumption may reduce the risk. To reduce the consumption of red meat, experts recommend eating meat from poultry (chicken, duck, etc.) and fish
3. Avoiding obesity
In addition to the risk factors for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, obesity is also known to be a risk factor for colon cancer, so it is recommended to reduce the weight of which has more weight. Exercising regularly is a way to lose weight is good, because it olehraga also prove useful routine to prevent colon cancer.
4. Avoid breathing smoke
Smoke cigarettes and other tobacco products are highly proven increased risk of various cancers, including colon cancer. People who smoke more have polyps that develop into cancer in the colon. The results of a study showed an increase of more than 100% risk in smokers than nonsmokers. So, avoid risk factors that are most easily avoided.
5. Avoid consumption of beverages berakohol
In addition to liver damage, berakohol beverage consumption was also associated with increased risk of colon cancer.

Some of the symptoms of colon cancer include: changes in bowel pattern (BAB), mainly watery stool more than 6 weeks. Another symptom is bleeding from the anus, can be mixed with feces dengen or not. Routine screening examination to detect early colon cancer is by blood tests in feces vague and can be followed by colonoscopy. Consult with your doctor for instructions of this screening examination.

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Rabu, 03 Februari 2010

What is Colposcopy ?

Colposcopy is a procedure vaginal and cervical examination rahims by a physician experienced in the field. By examining the surface rahims neck, the doctor will determine the cause of abnormality of cervical cells rahims as stated in the examination 'Pap smear'. How to colposcopy examination were as follows: the doctor will insert a liquid into the vagina and neck tint rahims channels with a liquid that makes the surface of the neck rahims contains cells that terwarnai abnormally .. Then the doctor will look into the channel through the neck rahims a tool called kolposkop. Kolposkop is a binocular microscope, such a tool that uses a strong light with high magnification.
If the abnormal area was localized, the doctor will take samples of the tissue (a biopsy) for later sent to a lab for a detailed examination and accurate. Treatment will depend on the results of all your colposcopy examination.

How to your sexual activities?
At this stage, you do not have to worry about your sexual activity. You do not need to miss a sexual activity simply because the tests 'Pap Smear' you are positive, because it pre-cancer or cancer pain that you may not be passed on to your husband. But if you're in the healing treatment, you should ask your doctor when you can have sex intercourse again and how often these relationships.

Should follow-up examination after completion of treatment?
Further examination after the completion of treatment is absolutely necessary to obtain assurance that the area that has been treated has been cured at all. Even if the method of treatment you get, very effective, the cells are abnormal cells can sometimes recur again, can even grow with the degree of severity is higher. So early detection is a very essential thing once. During the first two years of treatment, you are advised to undergo tests 'Pap Smear' every three months or six months. If after three consecutive examination results 'Pap Smear' you are normal, this means that you have can be declared cured, and you can do a 'Pap smear' that every year is continue.

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Cervical Cancer Treatment

Medical
As with other disease events, if the initial change can be detected as early as possible, action can be given treatment as early as possible. If the initial changes have been known to the general treatment is given by:

1. Heating, diathermy or laser.
2. Cone biopsy, namely by taking a few of the cells, cervical cells, including cells undergoing changes. This allows a more thorough examination to ensure the cells are subject to change. This examination can be performed by the obstetrician.

If the course of the disease has reached the stage of pre-cancer and cervical cancer have been identified, it is for healing, some things you can do is:

1. Operation, namely by taking the cancerous area, usually the uterus and cervix.
2. Radiotherapy is by using high-powered X-rays that can be done internally and externally.

Risk for esophageal cancer:
Every woman who ever had sexual intercourse has a risk of cervical cancer. Cells of the cervix may experience changes that are needed to do a Pap smear test regularly (both who have or who have never get a Pap smear test). Similarly, for those of you who smoke likely to get cervical cancer is very large.
Met Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is often suspected as the cause of the abnormal changes in cells of the cervix.
Sexual partner who has alternated or begin sexual activity at a very young age may also increase the risk of getting cervical cancer.
What should you do to prevent cervical cancer?
Firstly, if you ever had sexual intercourse you should do a Pap smear test regularly every two years and this is done until you are 70 years old. In some cases doctors may recommend to perform a Pap smear test more often.
The second thing is to report any symptoms such as abnormal bleeding, especially after coitus (intercourse).
The third thing is to not smoke. Statistical data reported that the risk of cervical cancer would be higher if the woman smokes.
By taking some measures that can minimize these risks, we hope the event excluded from this cervical cancer. Hopefully.
Can you imagine, how would you feel if you know the results of 'Pap Smear' you gave abnormal results? Certainly you will feel worried and anxious, when you find that the results of 'Pap Smear' you are abnormal. But do not worry too much before, because not all the appearance of cells that are abnormal means cancer. It 'Pap Smear' can detect abnormalities of cells changes in the cervix at an early stage. Paradigm to remember is the early discovery of abnormalities on examination 'Pap smear', it will be more easily solved problem.
Does it mean if 'Pap Smear' you are abnormal.
Results 'Pap Smear' say if the abnormal cells from your cervix when examined under a microscope will give a different appearance with normal cells. This event usually occurs 1 in 10 tests 'Pap smear'. Several factors can provide indications discovery apparition "Pap Smear 'abnormal is:

1. Unsatisfactory 'Pap Smear'
In this case, means that employees in these Lab could not see the cells of your neck with details rahims that fail to make a report to your doctor komprehensive. If this case happened to you should you come back for examination 'Pap smear' in time to be determined by your doctor.
2. If there is infection or inflammation
Sometimes the tests 'Pap Smear' gives the appearance of inflammation. This means that the cells in the rahims neck experiencing a mild irritation in nature. Sometimes inflammation can be detected through a 'Pap smear', even if we do not feel the complaints because terasanya not cause clinical symptoms. Why is mixed. May have occurred due to infection by bacteria, or because the fungus'. Consult with your doctor about this problem and its treatment if necessary. Ask when you have to go through 'Pap Smear' again.
3. Minor Atypia or Atypia
The meaning of this situation is if the examination 'Pap Smear' detected changes neck cells rahims, but very minor and the cause is not clear. In this case, usually the result reported as 'atypia'. Usually the appearance changes such cells due to inflammation, but also because it is not rare viral infection. Because to make a definitive diagnosis is not possible at this stage, your doctor may recommend you for another checkup in six months. In general, these cells will return to normal again. Thus, it is very important for you to do 'Pap Smear' again to make sure that the abnormalities that appear on first inspection it is not a serious disorder. If the results produce the same results then you may be advised to undergo colposcopy.

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Cervical Cancer

Of course you are familiar with the term cervical cancer (Cervical Cancer), or cancer of the cervix. True, as the name suggests, cervical cancer is cancer that occurs in the uterine cervix, an area in which the female reproductive organ is the entrance to the uterus located between the womb (uterus) with a hole intercourse (vaginal). This cancer usually occurs in women who have lived, but the statistical evidence shows that cervical cancer can also attack the women aged between 20 to 30 years.Indeed the term "cancer" itself is certainly giving the impression scary and creepy. Like a death row inmate received.

What about cervical cancer?
Was also just scary to some other cancers?
According to experts cancer, cervical cancer is one type of cancer the most preventable and most curable of all cancers. However, even if so, in the western Australian region alone, 85 people were recorded as many positive effects on women diagnosed with cervical cancer each year. And in 1993 alone, 40 women had died a victim of this cancer malignancy.

How cervical cancer occur?
Like all cancers, cervical cancers occur characterized by the growth of cells on the cervix that is not unusual (abnormal). But before these cells become cancer cells, there are some changes experienced by these cells. Changes in these cells usually take up many years before the cells had been transformed into cancer cells. During these breaks, proper treatment will soon be able to stop the cells are abnormal cells before they turn into cancer cells. The cells are abnormal presence can be detected by a test called a Pap smear test ", so the earlier the abnormal cells were detected, the more a person's risk rendahlah cervical cancer.
It is a Pap smear test is a test that is safe and inexpensive and has been used for years to detect abnormalities that occur in cells of the cervix. This test was first discovered by Dr. George Papanicolou, so called a Pap smear test. Pap smear test is a method of examination of cells taken from the cervix and then examined under a microscope to see the changes that occur from these cells. Changes in the cells of the cervix detected early will allow treatment of certain actions taken before these cells can develop into cancer cells.
This test only takes a few minutes. In a state lying on your back, an instrument called a speculum will be inserted into the hole intercourse. This tool is to open and hold the vaginal wall in order to remain open, allowing a free view and cervix seen clearly. Cells of the cervix and then taken by way of wiping the cervix with an instrument called a spatula, a device resembling a handle on ice cream, and smears is applied to the object-glass, and then sent to a pathology laboratory for a more thorough examination.
Procedure Pap smear test may be very unpleasant for you, but will not cause pain. Perhaps you would prefer a female doctor for this procedure, but in general the general practitioners and family planning clinics can turn to for help for a Pap smear test. Try doing a Pap smear test at the time was a week or two weeks after the end of your menstrual period. If you have menopause, a Pap smear test you can do at any time. But if the bladder uterus and cervix have been removed or surgery (hysterectomy or surgical removal of bladder uterus and cervix), you no longer need to do a Pap smear test because you're free from the risk of cervical cancer. Pap smear test is usually done once every two years, and better done on a regular basis. It must always remember is never too late to do a Pap smear test. Pap smear test is always required even if you are no longer doing sexual activities.

How Signs of Cervical Cancer?
Changes that occur early in cervical cells is not always a sign of cancer. Pap smear test regularly is necessary to know the early beginning of a change in the cancer cells. Changes in cancer cells may lead to further bleeding after sexual activity or between menstrual periods.
If you get these signs, you should immediately conduct investigation into the doctor. Any change or discharge (discharge) is not a normal thing, and a thorough examination must be done even if you've just done a Pap smear test. Even so, in general, after a thorough examination, the results are not always positive cancer.

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Selasa, 02 Februari 2010

Breast cancer

If a woman found a lump in the tumor, what happened? First will come a feeling of worry and then addressed with different. Some will go to the doctor for the lump checked, partly to try alternative treatments, while some tried to forget it and not take any action.

Any lump in the breast of course raises many concerns, including the possibility of cancer, the operation, the side effects of radiation and chemotherapy, until death. Concerns often lead to excessive delay patients to consult a doctor, but not all lumps in the breast is a cancer, even most of it is a benign tumor.

Risk Factors

The cause of breast cancer until now allegedly due to a complex interaction of many factors such as genetic, hormonal, and environmental. Several factors that increase the risk of breast cancer are older age, menarche (first menstruation) earlier, older age at menopause, older age at first birth or never been pregnant, family history (especially mother, sister) with breast cancer, had a history of benign breast tumors, taking the long-term hormonal contraception, alcohol consumption, and exposure to radiation in the breast, especially during the period of breast formation.

The existence of genetic factors does not mean someone who has breast cancer gene will have cancer, but only a risk for cancer and can decrease gene. Cancer-causing genes derived from parent to child without associated with gender.

Until now many cancer-causing genes can not be identified. Among those already identified are BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is estimated that 1 in 10 women will develop breast cancer and this may be increased up to 90 percent in women with BRCA1 gene disorders and / or BRCA2.

Families have identified the gene in addition to breast cancer also increases the risk for other cancers such as ovarian, colon, and prostate.

Diagnosis

To diagnose breast cancer, in addition to anamnesis of the history and physical examination of lumps by a doctor, so also does some investigations such as mammography, breast ultrasound and biopsy (tissue sampling tumors), and if the suspected cancer, added tests to see if there spread to organs other. Breast cancer can spread to the lungs, liver, bone, and others.

Stage breast cancer is determined by the large tumor, presence or absence of spread to the lymph nodes and organs of the body. The spread to underarm lymph nodes, which were located in the so intangible can be known only after examination of lymph node tissue that is removed through surgery.

Breast cancer treatment are generally divided into two major groups, first, treatment for early stage cancer, the second, treatment for advanced cancer and a relapse. Current treatment for breast cancer includes surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and biological therapy. If the cancer is still in early stages, then the operation can be performed.

Operations by Breast Conserving Therapy (BCT), the appointment of all cancer tissue and a little surrounding breast tissue followed by radiation, has often performed with the same result as surgical removal of the entire breast. But BCT can only be done in patients with small tumor size or tumor size diminished with early treatment (radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy) to become eligible for surgery.

Radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy is a treatment option for advanced cancer. Thanks to the progress of breast cancer research, current treatments for advanced breast cancer have shown that the survival rate increases and decreases mortality. Chemotherapy can also be done at an early stage cancer patients to reduce the possibility of the spread of cancer cells that were not initially detected.

Side effects of chemotherapy are often feared by patients has diminished with the discovery of new drugs that have specific effects on cancer cells so that the side effects on normal cells is reduced. Also available are the drugs to overcome the side effects that occur, such as nausea suppressant drugs and vomiting, and drugs to increase the number of leukocytes.

Since the early 1960s, when estrogen receptors were first discovered, it is known that breast cancer who have estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor gives good results with hormonal therapy in general works to suppress the effects of estrogen on tumor cells.

Early Detection

Results of treatment is determined by stage of disease when first diagnosed. Therefore, early detection efforts against breast cancer is very important. With early detection of disease has been diagnosed is expected at an early stage so that the possibility of full recovery becomes large.

Examination lump using the 'Realize' (check your own breasts) can be done alone every month. Examination should be done after the period finished. The trick is to reflect and consider whether there are abnormalities in the breast. Then put your arms above your head and look back to the breast.

Next bend over 90 degrees, then check again. Lie on the bed. Put your left hand behind his head, then put a pillow under your left shoulder. Touch the left breast with the fingers of his right. Check whether there is a lump in it. Then also check that there is a lump or swelling in the left armpit. Conduct contrary to the breast and right armpit.

Mammography, breast examination action with X-rays, highly recommended by women over 40 years. Although the breast is exposed to radiation, the benefits proved higher than the risks. If the results are negative, repeat mammography examination time will be determined by the doctor by taking into account the risk factors a patient possessed.

Women who have blood family members who had breast cancer, especially if the amount is more than 1, has a high risk for breast cancer. Moreover, if the examination of genetic abnormalities found in 1 or BRCA gene 2

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