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Selasa, 02 Februari 2010

Breast cancer

If a woman found a lump in the tumor, what happened? First will come a feeling of worry and then addressed with different. Some will go to the doctor for the lump checked, partly to try alternative treatments, while some tried to forget it and not take any action.

Any lump in the breast of course raises many concerns, including the possibility of cancer, the operation, the side effects of radiation and chemotherapy, until death. Concerns often lead to excessive delay patients to consult a doctor, but not all lumps in the breast is a cancer, even most of it is a benign tumor.

Risk Factors

The cause of breast cancer until now allegedly due to a complex interaction of many factors such as genetic, hormonal, and environmental. Several factors that increase the risk of breast cancer are older age, menarche (first menstruation) earlier, older age at menopause, older age at first birth or never been pregnant, family history (especially mother, sister) with breast cancer, had a history of benign breast tumors, taking the long-term hormonal contraception, alcohol consumption, and exposure to radiation in the breast, especially during the period of breast formation.

The existence of genetic factors does not mean someone who has breast cancer gene will have cancer, but only a risk for cancer and can decrease gene. Cancer-causing genes derived from parent to child without associated with gender.

Until now many cancer-causing genes can not be identified. Among those already identified are BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is estimated that 1 in 10 women will develop breast cancer and this may be increased up to 90 percent in women with BRCA1 gene disorders and / or BRCA2.

Families have identified the gene in addition to breast cancer also increases the risk for other cancers such as ovarian, colon, and prostate.

Diagnosis

To diagnose breast cancer, in addition to anamnesis of the history and physical examination of lumps by a doctor, so also does some investigations such as mammography, breast ultrasound and biopsy (tissue sampling tumors), and if the suspected cancer, added tests to see if there spread to organs other. Breast cancer can spread to the lungs, liver, bone, and others.

Stage breast cancer is determined by the large tumor, presence or absence of spread to the lymph nodes and organs of the body. The spread to underarm lymph nodes, which were located in the so intangible can be known only after examination of lymph node tissue that is removed through surgery.

Breast cancer treatment are generally divided into two major groups, first, treatment for early stage cancer, the second, treatment for advanced cancer and a relapse. Current treatment for breast cancer includes surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and biological therapy. If the cancer is still in early stages, then the operation can be performed.

Operations by Breast Conserving Therapy (BCT), the appointment of all cancer tissue and a little surrounding breast tissue followed by radiation, has often performed with the same result as surgical removal of the entire breast. But BCT can only be done in patients with small tumor size or tumor size diminished with early treatment (radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy) to become eligible for surgery.

Radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy is a treatment option for advanced cancer. Thanks to the progress of breast cancer research, current treatments for advanced breast cancer have shown that the survival rate increases and decreases mortality. Chemotherapy can also be done at an early stage cancer patients to reduce the possibility of the spread of cancer cells that were not initially detected.

Side effects of chemotherapy are often feared by patients has diminished with the discovery of new drugs that have specific effects on cancer cells so that the side effects on normal cells is reduced. Also available are the drugs to overcome the side effects that occur, such as nausea suppressant drugs and vomiting, and drugs to increase the number of leukocytes.

Since the early 1960s, when estrogen receptors were first discovered, it is known that breast cancer who have estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor gives good results with hormonal therapy in general works to suppress the effects of estrogen on tumor cells.

Early Detection

Results of treatment is determined by stage of disease when first diagnosed. Therefore, early detection efforts against breast cancer is very important. With early detection of disease has been diagnosed is expected at an early stage so that the possibility of full recovery becomes large.

Examination lump using the 'Realize' (check your own breasts) can be done alone every month. Examination should be done after the period finished. The trick is to reflect and consider whether there are abnormalities in the breast. Then put your arms above your head and look back to the breast.

Next bend over 90 degrees, then check again. Lie on the bed. Put your left hand behind his head, then put a pillow under your left shoulder. Touch the left breast with the fingers of his right. Check whether there is a lump in it. Then also check that there is a lump or swelling in the left armpit. Conduct contrary to the breast and right armpit.

Mammography, breast examination action with X-rays, highly recommended by women over 40 years. Although the breast is exposed to radiation, the benefits proved higher than the risks. If the results are negative, repeat mammography examination time will be determined by the doctor by taking into account the risk factors a patient possessed.

Women who have blood family members who had breast cancer, especially if the amount is more than 1, has a high risk for breast cancer. Moreover, if the examination of genetic abnormalities found in 1 or BRCA gene 2

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